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- Design by Contract
- Implementation and use
- Programming interface of module contract-helpers
- Programming interface of module contracts
- Initial version
- Version History
Design by Contract
"Design by contract" is a metaphor coined by Bertrand Meyer for his purely object oriented language Eiffel. The idea behind it is to separate the concerns of suppliers and clients of software modules: The client of a routine is responsible for calling it with correct arguments. The supplier can rely on it, she/he mustn't check it again. The supplier in turn is responsible for delivering correct results, provided the routine's arguments are valid. If not, the supplier needn't do any work at all.
In this metaphor a module is something like a contract between the supplier and the client of that module. But like a contract in social life, it's useless if not properly documented. Hence the "small print" of our module should be documented automatically, so that each party knows about each others duties ....
Another metaphor of Meyer's is "command-query-separation", where in Eiffel a command is working by side effect (it changes the object's state) and a query is a pure function (it reports the object's state without changing it). His advice is, never to do both in one routine, write two instead.
Implementation and use
This module is an attempt to bring Design by Contract to Chicken Scheme. In effect, it replaces define and define-syntax by new macros define-with-contract and define-syntax-with-contract respectively, where - in the long form - the lambda or syntax-rules expression is preceeded by a contract expression. A short form is available as well, where the call pattern of the procedure is followed by the contract clauses and the procedure's body.
To achieve automatic documentation, these two macros have to be wrapped by a call of the parameter
initializing documentation and the definition
(define module-name (doclist->dispatcher (doclist)))
saving it in a dispatcher routine.
The case of procedures
For procedures a contract expression starts with the symbol contract and contains a list of clauses, where each clause is either
- the pattern of a typical procedure's call, the only required clause,
- a documentation string,
- a list starting with the keyword domain: (or the literal domain) and containing checks of the assumptions,
- a list starting with the keyword range: (or the literal range) followed either by (with-results (result0 result1 ...) xpr0 xpr1 ...) or by xpr0 xpr1 ..., where xpr0 xpr1 are predicates on result0 result1 ... or the default variable name result.
- a list starting with the keyword effect: (or the literal effect) which contains triples of the form (state query change [equ?]) where state is bound to the query expression before the command call and the change expression is compared with equal? [or equ?, if supplied] to another call of query after the command call.
Note, that command-query-separation demands, that only one of a range: and an effect: clause are allowed.
The case of macros
For syntax-rules macros as well as ir-macro-rules and er-macro-rules macros the contract expression is simply a docstring. After all, those macro-transformers have domain checks already built-in in form of the pattern matching process, it needs only be automatically documented.
For raw low-level macros based on (er-|ir-)macro-transformer, it's a list starting with the macro code (name . rest) which will be matched against the macro's use and an optional documentation string.
Programming interface of module contract-helpers
contract-helpers[procedure] (contract-helpers [sym])
prints the contract of the exported symbol sym of the contract-helpers module or the list of exported symbols when called as a thunk.
er-macro-rules[syntax] (er-macro-rules (%sym ...) (code0 xpr0) (code1 xpr1) ...)
references a renamed version of sym ... under the name %sym ... and pairs the differnt macro-codes code0 code1 ... with expressions xpr0 xpr1 ..., which usually evalute to backquoted templates.
This macro is unhygienic by design, it introduces the symbol compare? into its scope.
ir-macro-rules[syntax] (ir-macro-rules (sym ...) (code0 xpr0) (code1 xpr1) ...)
pairs the differnt macro-codes code0 code1 ... with expressions xpr0 xpr1 ..., which usually evalute to backquoted templates in the scope of injected symbols sym ....
This macro is unhygienic by design, it introduces the two symbols inject and compare? into its scope.
bind[syntax] (bind pat xpr . body)
binds the pattern variables of the nested lambda-list pat to corresponding subexpressions of the nested pseudolist xpr and executes body in this context.
bind-case[syntax] (bind-case xpr (pat0 . body0) (pat1 . body1) ...)
matches nested pseudolist-expression xpr against patterns pat0 pat1 ... in sequence, binding the variables of the first matching pattern to corresponding subexpressions of xpr and executes body of the first matching pattern in this context.
doclist[parameter] (doclist '())
should be called before the first define[-syntax]-with-contract expression to initialize automatic documentation.
doclist->dispatcher[procedure] (doclist->dispatcher (doclist))
saves (doclist) in a dispatcher. A typical use is
(define module-name (doclist->dispatcher (doclist)))
which should be called after the last define[-syntax]-with-contract expression to save the automatic documentation in module-name. This procedure can than be called by the module's client with or without a symbol argument.
Without argument the call returns the list of exported symbols, with argument the call returns the textual representaion of the contract of the module's exported symbol sym.
prints the documentation of the whole module in readable form.
Programming interface of module contracts
All exported symbols of contract-helpers are passed through, so that it's only necessary to import contracts.
contracts[procedure] (contracts [sym])
prints the contract of the exported symbol sym of the contracts module or the list of exported symbols when called as a thunk.
contract[syntax] (contract (name . args) clause ...)
where each clause is one of
- a documentation string
- (domain: assumption ...)
- (range: proposition ...) or (range: (with-results (res0 res1 ...) proposition ...)
- (effect: (state query change [equ?]) ...)
One of[syntax] (define-with-contract name (contract (name . args) clause ...) (lambda args . body))
[syntax] (define-with-contract name (let ((var val) ...) (contract (name . args) clause ...) (lambda args . body)))
[syntax] (define-with-contract (name . args) clause ... . body)
where the admissible clauses are described above and instead of let another binding construct can be used as well.
One of[syntax] (define-syntax-with-contract name docstring rules)
where rules is one of
- (syntax-rules (sym ...) (pat0 tpl0) (pat1 tpl1) ...)
- (ir-macro-rules (sym ...) (pat0 xpr0) (pat1 xpr1) ...)
- (er-macro-rules (%sym ...) (pat0 xpr0) (pat1 xpr1) ...)
and docstring is optional,[syntax] (define-syntax-with-contract name (syntax-contract (name . rest) docstring) transformer)
where docstring is optional and transformer is a raw low-level macro-transformer,[syntax] (define-syntax-with-contract (name . rest) docstring with-expression)
where docstring is optional and with-expression is one of
- (literal syms . body)
- (with-renamed syms . body)
- (with-injected syms . body)
which will be translated to syntax-rules, er-macro-rules or ir-macro-rules respectively.
er-macro-define-with-contract[syntax] (er-macro-define-with-contract code docstring (with-renamed (%sym ...) body . body...))
where docstring is optional, code is the complete macro-code (name . args), i.e. the pattern of a macro call, %sym ... are aliases of sym ... and the sequence of expressions body . body... produces the macro-expansion.
ir-macro-define-with-contract[syntax] (er-macro-define-with-contract code docstring (with-injected (sym ...) body . body...))
where docstring is optional, code is the complete macro-code (name . args), i.e. the pattern of a macro call, sym ... are symbols to be injected verbatim - i.e. without renaming - into the macro-expansion described by the sequence of expressions body . body...
If no symbol is injected, the following syntax is valid as well[syntax] (er-macro-define-with-contract code docstring body . body...)
(use contracts) (import-for-syntax (only contacts er-macro-rules ir-macro-rules))
(use contacts) (import-for-syntax (only contracts ir-macro-rules er-macro-rules)) ;;; initialize documentation (doclist '()) ;;; a single datatype as an alternative to boxes ;; predicate (define-with-contract (single? xpr) "check, if xpr evaluates to a single" (and (procedure? xpr) (condition-case (eq? 'single (xpr (lambda (a b c) a))) ((exn) #f)))) ;; constructor (define-with-contract (single xpr) "package the value of xpr into a single object" (domain: (true? xpr)) (range: (single? result)) (lambda (sel) (sel 'single xpr (lambda (new) (set! xpr new))))) ;; query (define-with-contract (single-state sg) "returns the state of the single object sg" (domain: (single? sg)) (range: (true? result)) (sg (lambda (a b c) b))) ;; command (define-with-contract (single-state! sg arg) "replaces state of sg with arg" (domain: (single? sg) (true? arg)) (effect: (state (single-state sg) arg)) ((sg (lambda (a b c) c)) arg)) ;;; Euclid's integer division as an example for a ;;; function with two results (define-with-contract (quotient+remainder m n) "integer division" (domain: (integer? m) (not (negative? m)) (integer? n) (positive? n) (<= n m)) (range: (with-results (q r) (integer? q) (integer? r) (= (+ (* q n) r) m))) (let loop ((q 0) (r m)) (if (< r n) (values q r) (loop (add1 q) (- r n))))) ;;; the same trivial freeze macro implemented in different styles (define-syntax-with-contract (sefreeze xpr) "sefreeze" (with-renamed (%lambda) `(,%lambda () ,xpr))) (define-syntax-with-contract (sifreeze xpr) "sifreeze" (with-injected () `(lambda () ,xpr))) (define-syntax-with-contract (ssfreeze xpr) "ssfreeze" (literal () (lambda () xpr))) (define-syntax-with-contract sfreeze "sfreeze" (syntax-rules () ((_ xpr) (lambda () xpr)))) (define-syntax-with-contract ifreeze "ifreeze" (ir-macro-rules () ((_ xpr) `(lambda () ,xpr)))) (define-syntax-with-contract efreeze "efreeze" (er-macro-rules (%lambda) ((_ xpr) `(,%lambda () ,xpr)))) (define-syntax-with-contract lifreeze (syntax-contract (lifreeze xpr) "lifreeze") (ir-macro-transformer (lambda (f i c) `(lambda () ,(cadr f))))) (define-syntax-with-contract lefreeze (syntax-contract (lefreeze xpr) "lefreeze") (er-macro-transformer (lambda (f r c) `(,(r 'lambda) () ,(cadr f))))) (define-syntax-with-contract lfreeze (syntax-contract (lfreeze xpr) "lfreeze") (lambda (f r c) `(,(r 'lambda) () ,(cadr f)))) ;;; explicit- and implicit-renaming versions of or (define-syntax-with-contract er-or "er-version of or" (er-macro-rules (%if %er-or) ((_) #f) ((_ arg . args) `(,%if ,arg ,arg (,%er-or ,@args))))) (define-syntax-with-contract ir-or "ir-version of or" (ir-macro-rules () ((_) #f) ((_ arg . args) `(if ,arg ,arg (ir-or ,@args))))) (ir-macro-define-with-contract (our-or . args) "a private version of or" (if (null? args) #f (let ((tmp (car args))) `(if ,tmp ,tmp (our-or ,@(cdr args)))))) (er-macro-define-with-contract (my-or . args) "a variant of or" (with-renamed (%if %my-or) (if (null? args) #f (let ((tmp (car args))) `(,%if ,tmp ,tmp (,%my-or ,@(cdr args))))))) ;; save documantation in dispatcher (define docs (doclist->dispatcher (doclist))) ;; some binding-examples with results (bind x 1 x) ; -> 1 (bind (x (y (z . u) v) . w) '(1 (2 (3) 4) 5 6) (list x y z u v w)) ; -> (1 2 3 () 4 (5 6)) (bind (x (y (z . u) v) . w) '(1 (2 (3 . 3) 4) 5 6) (list x y z u v w)) ; -> (1 2 3 3 4 (5 6)) (bind-case '(1 (2 3)) ((x (y z)) (list x y z)) ((x (y . z)) (list x y z)) ((x y) (list x y))) ; -> (1 2 3) (bind-case '(1 (2 3)) ((x (y . z)) (list x y z)) ((x y) (list x y)) ((x (y z)) (list x y z))) ; -> (1 2 (3)) (bind-case '(1 (2 3)) ((x y) (list x y)) ((x (y . z)) (list x y z)) ((x (y z)) (list x y z))) ; -> (1 (2 3)) (bind-case '(1 (2 . 3)) ((x (y . z)) (list x y z)) ((x (y z)) (list x y z))) ; -> (1 2 3) (bind-case '(1 (2 . 3)) ((x y) (list x y)) ((x (y . z)) (list x y z)) ((x (y z)) (list x y z))) ; -> (1 (2 . 3))
Sep 05, 2011
Copyright (c) 2011, Juergen Lorenz All rights reserved.
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- with-aliases and matches? removed from interface, bind and bind-case rewritten
- Code split into two modules, added matches? with-aliases er-macro-define-with-contract ir-macro-define-with-contract
- Code fixed to work with new transformer syntax in Chicken-4.7.3, syntax-contract removed as separate macro but retained as literal symbol in define-syntax-with-contract, define-syntax-with-contract rewritten
- bind and bind-case exported again: needed by ir-macros and er-macros
- removed bind, bind-case rewritten but removed from interface
- various chenges: removed unnecessary dependencies, removed bind-let* and matches? from interface, define-syntax-with-contract and bind rewritten, comments updated, ...
- changed with-literal to literal
- added bind bind-let* bind-case matches syntax-contract ir-macro-rules er-macro-rules, changed define-syntax-with-contract
- (results: ...) made obsolete, use (with-results (name ...) . body) within (range: ...) instead
- changed (effect: ...), removed (state: ...) (invariant: ...)
- some enhancements
- added print-doclist, fixed typo in setup script reported by mario
- initial import