1. C interface
    1. Temporary stack
      1. C_save
      2. C_restore
    2. Type/value predicates
      1. C predicates
        1. C_truep
        2. C_immediatep
        3. C_fitsinfixnump
        4. C_ufitsinfixnump
      2. Scheme predicates
        1. C_zero_length_p
        2. C_unboundvaluep
        3. C_boundp
        4. C_blockp
        5. C_immp
        6. C_forwardedp
        7. C_flonump
        8. C_stringp
        9. C_symbolp
        10. C_pairp
        11. C_closurep
        12. C_vectorp
        13. C_bytevectorp
        14. C_portp
        15. C_structurep
        16. C_locativep
        17. C_charp
        18. C_booleanp
        19. C_eofp
        20. C_undefinedp
        21. C_fixnump
        22. C_nfixnump
        23. C_i_numberp
        24. C_pointerp
        25. C_taggedpointerp
        26. C_swigpointerp
        27. C_anypointerp
        28. C_lambdainfop
        29. C_byteblockp
        30. C_specialp
        31. C_nullp
        32. C_anyp
    3. Constructors
      1. Constructors for immediate Scheme objects
        1. C_fix
        2. C_make_character
        3. C_mk_bool
        4. C_mk_nbool
        5. C_SCHEME_END_OF_LIST
        6. C_SCHEME_END_OF_FILE
        7. C_SCHEME_FALSE
        8. C_SCHEME_TRUE
      2. Constructors for non-immediate Scheme objects
        1. C_string
        2. C_string2
        3. C_intern2
        4. C_intern3
        5. C_pair
        6. C_flonum
        7. C_int_to_num
        8. C_mpointer
        9. C_vector
        10. C_list
        11. C_closure
      3. Memory allocation
        1. C_alloc
        2. C_SIZEOF_LIST
        3. C_SIZEOF_STRING
        4. C_SIZEOF_VECTOR
        5. C_SIZEOF_INTERNED_SYMBOL
        6. C_SIZEOF_PAIR
        7. C_SIZEOF_FLONUM
        8. C_SIZEOF_POINTER
        9. C_SIZEOF_LOCATIVE
        10. C_SIZEOF_TAGGED_POINTER
    4. Accessors
      1. C_character_code
      2. C_unfix
      3. C_flonum_magnitude
      4. C_c_string
      5. C_num_to_int
      6. C_pointer_address
      7. C_header_size
      8. C_header_bits
      9. C_block_item
      10. C_u_i_car
      11. C_u_i_cdr
      12. C_port_file
      13. C_data_pointer
    5. C_make_header
    6. C_mutate
    7. C_symbol_value
    8. GC interface
      1. C_gc_protect
      2. C_gc_unprotect
      3. C_pre_gc_hook
      4. C_post_gc_hook
    9. Type-specific macros and functions
      1. Vectors
        1. C_vemptyp
        2. C_notvemptyp
      2. Numbers
        1. C_u_i_exactp
        2. C_u_i_inexactp
        3. C_i_finitep
      3. Fixnums
        1. C_i_fixnumevenp
        2. C_i_fixnumoddp
        3. C_fixnum_times
        4. C_fixnum_plus
        5. C_u_fixnum_plus
        6. C_fixnum_difference
        7. C_u_fixnum_difference
        8. C_fixnum_divide
        9. C_u_fixnum_divide
        10. C_fixnum_modulo
        11. C_u_fixnum_modulo
        12. C_fixnum_and
        13. C_u_fixnum_and
        14. C_fixnum_or
        15. C_u_fixnum_or
        16. C_fixnum_xor
        17. C_fixnum_not
        18. C_fixnum_shift_left
        19. C_fixnum_shift_right
        20. C_fixnum_negate
        21. C_fixnum_greaterp
        22. C_fixnum_greater_or_equal_p
        23. C_fixnum_lessp
        24. C_fixnum_less_or_equal_p
        25. C_fixnum_increase
        26. C_u_fixnum_increase
        27. C_fixnum_decrease
        28. C_u_fixnum_decrease
        29. C_fixnum_abs
        30. C_i_fixnum_min
        31. C_i_fixnum_max
      4. Flonums
        1. C_flonum_equalp
        2. C_flonum_greaterp
        3. C_flonum_greater_or_equal_p
        4. C_flonum_lessp
        5. C_flonum_less_or_equal_p
        6. C_a_i_flonum_plus
        7. C_a_i_flonum_difference
        8. C_a_i_flonum_times
        9. C_a_i_flonum_quotient
        10. C_a_i_flonum_negate
        11. C_a_i_flonum_truncate
        12. C_a_i_flonum_ceiling
        13. C_a_i_flonum_floor
        14. C_a_i_flonum_round
        15. C_a_i_flonum_round_proper
        16. C_a_i_flonum_sin
        17. C_a_i_flonum_cos
        18. C_a_i_flonum_tan
        19. C_a_i_flonum_asin
        20. C_a_i_flonum_acos
        21. C_a_i_flonum_atan
        22. C_a_i_flonum_atan2
        23. C_a_i_flonum_log
        24. C_a_i_flonum_exp
        25. C_a_i_flonum_expt
        26. C_a_i_flonum_sqrt
        27. C_a_i_flonum_abs
      5. Pointers
        1. C_null_pointerp
        2. C_a_i_address_to_pointer
        3. C_a_i_pointer_to_address
      6. Ports
        1. C_tty_portp
      7. Structures
        1. C_i_structurep
      8. Characters
        1. C_u_i_char_alphabeticp
        2. C_u_i_char_numericp
        3. C_u_i_char_whitespacep
        4. C_u_i_char_upper_casep
        5. C_u_i_char_lower_casep
    10. Other Scheme procedures from C
      1. C_eqp
      2. C_equalp
      3. C_i_pairp
      4. C_i_not_pair_p
    11. An example for simple calls to foreign code involving callbacks
    12. Notes:

C interface

The following functions and macros are available for C code that invokes Scheme or foreign procedures that are called by Scheme:

Temporary stack

C_save

[C macro] void C_save (C_word x) :

Saves the Scheme data object x on the temporary stack.

C_restore

[C macro] C_word C_restore

Pops and returns the topmost value from the temporary stack.

Type/value predicates

When writing C code that accepts Scheme objects you often need to do checking what type of object is passed. These can help you determine the type of an object.

C predicates

These return regular C integer values (ie, zero is false, nonzero true).

C_truep
[C macro] int C_truep(C_word x)

Is x a truthy value, i.e. anything except C_SCHEME_FALSE?

C_immediatep
[C macro] int C_immediatep(C_word x)

Is x an immediate object? (see below for a definition)

C_fitsinfixnump
[C macro] int C_fitsinfixnump(int number)

Will number fit in a fixnum? It will fit when there is room for one additional type bit to tag it as a fixnum (assuming one bit is already used for the sign). In practice this means that the number's top two bits must be identical.

C_ufitsinfixnump
[C macro] int C_ufitsinfixnump(unsigned int number)

Like C_fitsinfixnump but for unsigned integers. This checks the top two bits are zero, since fixnums always carry a sign.

Scheme predicates

These return Scheme booleans (ie, C_SCHEME_TRUE or C_SCHEME_FALSE). This means they can be used directly from Scheme using ##core#inline.

C_zero_length_p
[C macro] C_word C_zero_length_p(C_word x)

Is x a Scheme object of zero length? Only accepts non-immediate objects.

C_unboundvaluep
[C macro] C_word C_unboundvaluep(C_word x)

Is x the special unbound variable placeholder C_SCHEME_UNBOUND?

C_boundp
[C macro] C_word C_boundp(C_word x)

Is x a bound value? Only accepts non-immediate objects.

C_blockp
[C macro] C_word C_blockp(C_word x)

Is x a "block" value?

A "block" value is a value that contains a memory block, i.e. is not an immediate value.

C_immp
[C macro] C_word C_immp(C_word x)

Is x an immediate value?

C_forwardedp
[C macro] C_word C_forwardedp(C_word x)

Is x a GC-forwarded object?

C_flonump
[C macro] C_word C_flonump(C_word x)

Is x a Scheme flonum object? Accepts only non-immediate objects.

C_stringp
[C macro] C_word C_stringp(C_word x)

Is x a Scheme string object? Accepts only non-immediate objects.

C_symbolp
[C macro] C_word C_symbolp(C_word x)

Is x a symbol? Accepts only non-immediate objects.

C_pairp
[C macro] C_word C_pairp(C_word x)

Is x a pair? Accepts only non-immediate objects.

C_closurep
[C macro] C_word C_closurep(C_word x)

Is x a closure? Accepts only non-immediate objects.

C_vectorp
[C macro] C_word C_vectorp(C_word x)

Is x any kind of vector? Accepts only non-immediate objects.

This returns true for both regular heterogenous R5RS vectors and bytevectors ("blobs"). However, it does not return true for SRFI-4 vectors, as those are actually bytevectors wrapped in a structure with a type tag.

C_bytevectorp
[C macro] C_word C_bytevectorp(C_word x)

Is x a bytevector ("blob")? Accepts only non-immediate objects.

C_portp
[C macro] C_word C_portp(C_word x)

Is x a port object? Accepts only non-immediate objects.

C_structurep
[C macro] C_word C_structurep(C_word x)

Is x a structure (record) object? Accepts only non-immediate objects.

C_locativep
[C macro] C_word C_locativep(C_word x)

Is x a locative object? Accepts only non-immediate objects.

C_charp
[C macro] C_word C_charp(C_word x)

Is x a character object?

C_booleanp
[C macro] C_word C_booleanp(C_word x)

Is x a boolean object?

C_eofp
[C macro] C_word C_eofp(C_word x)

Is x the #!eof object?

C_undefinedp
[C macro] C_word C_undefinedp(C_word x)

Is x the undefined value?

C_fixnump
[C macro] C_word C_fixnump(C_word x)

Is x a fixnum object?

C_nfixnump
[C macro] C_word C_nfixnump(C_word x)

Is x not a fixnum object?

C_i_numberp
[C function] C_word C_i_numberp(C_word x)

Is x a number object (fixnum or flonum)?

C_pointerp
[C macro] C_word C_pointerp(C_word x)

Is x a C pointer object? Only accepts non-immediate objects.

C_taggedpointerp
[C macro] C_word C_taggedpointerp(C_word x)

Is x a tagged pointer object? Only accepts non-immediate objects.

C_swigpointerp
[C macro] C_word C_swigpointerp(C_word x)

Is x a SWIG pointer object? Only accepts non-immediate objects.

C_anypointerp
[C macro] C_word C_anypointerp(C_word x)

Is x any type of pointer object? Only accepts non-immediate objects.

C_lambdainfop
[C macro] C_word C_lambdainfop(C_word x)

Is x a lambda-info object? Only accepts non-immediate objects.

C_byteblockp
[C macro] C_word C_byteblockp(C_word x)

Is x a "byteblock" object? Only accepts non-immediate objects.

Strings, flonums, bytevectors and lambda-info objects are considered "byteblock" objects, as they are not containers for Scheme objects but simply point to contiguous memory ranges of bytes.

C_specialp
[C macro] C_word C_specialp(C_word x)

Is x a "special" object? Only accepts non-immediate objects.

Closures, ports, pointers and locatives are considered "special" objects, as they are not containers for Scheme objects (and they are not byte blocks either), so they have to be treated specially by the GC.

C_nullp
[C macro] C_word C_nullp(C_word x)

Is x the empty list, i.e. is it C_SCHEME_END_OF_LIST?

C_anyp
[C macro] C_word C_anyp(C_word x)

Always returns C_SCHEME_TRUE.

Constructors

Constructors for immediate Scheme objects

"immediate" Scheme objects are objects that are represented directly by a C_word. There's no additional memory used by them.

C_fix
[C macro] C_word C_fix (int integer)
C_make_character
[C macro] C_word C_make_character (int char_code)
C_mk_bool
[C macro] C_word C_mk_bool(int truth_value)
C_mk_nbool
[C macro] C_word C_mk_nbool(int truth_value_to_negate)
C_SCHEME_END_OF_LIST
[C macro] C_SCHEME_END_OF_LIST
C_SCHEME_END_OF_FILE
[C macro] C_SCHEME_END_OF_FILE
C_SCHEME_FALSE
[C macro] C_SCHEME_FALSE
C_SCHEME_TRUE
[C macro] C_SCHEME_TRUE

Constructors for non-immediate Scheme objects

Non-immediate Scheme objects are still represented and passed around by a single C_word, but this is basically just a pointer to the start of the object (which should never be treated as such, use the accessor macros instead).

C_string
[C function] C_word C_string (C_word **ptr, int length, char *string)
C_string2
[C function] C_word C_string2 (C_word **ptr, char *zero_terminated_string)
C_intern2
[C function] C_word C_intern2 (C_word **ptr, char *zero_terminated_string)
C_intern3
[C function] C_word C_intern3 (C_word **ptr, char *zero_terminated_string, C_word initial_value)
C_pair
[C function] C_word C_pair (C_word **ptr, C_word car, C_word cdr)
C_flonum
[C function] C_word C_flonum (C_word **ptr, double number)
C_int_to_num
[C function] C_word C_int_to_num (C_word **ptr, int integer)
C_mpointer
[C function] C_word C_mpointer (C_word **ptr, void *pointer)
C_vector
[C function] C_word C_vector (C_word **ptr, int length, ...)
C_list
[C function] C_word C_list (C_word **ptr, int length, ...)
C_closure
[C function] C_word C_closure (C_word **ptr, int length, C_word procedure, ...)

These functions allocate memory from ptr and initialize a fresh data object. The new data object is returned. ptr should be the address of an allocation pointer created with C_alloc.

To find out how big the memory block should be, use the C_SIZEOF_* macros described below.

Here's an example how to create a closure that accepts a vector, stores the Scheme numbers 1, 2 and 3 and a given string in it and returns that vector to its continuation:

#>

#include <assert.h>

void fill_vector(C_word c, C_word closure, C_word vec)
{
  C_word kontinuation = C_block_item(closure, 1);

  C_block_item(vec, 0) = C_fix(1);
  C_block_item(vec, 1) = C_fix(2);
  C_block_item(vec, 2) = C_fix(3);
  C_block_item(vec, 3) = C_block_item(closure, 2);

  C_kontinue(kontinuation, vec);
}

void one_two_three(C_word c, C_word self, C_word k, C_word str)
{
  /*
   * Allocate room on the stack to hold the closure:  1 word for
   * the type tag, 1 word for the procedure and 2 words for the
   * values "closed over"; this procedure's continuation "k" and
   * the argument "str".  We could also use C_alloc(4).
   */
  C_word closure[4], *cp = closure;

  /* Create the closure.  It holds 3 values, not counting the tag */
  C_word closure_object = C_closure(&cp, 3, (C_word)fill_vector, k, str);

  /*
   * After this, cp points just beyond the last word of the allocated
   * data and closure_object is an opaque representation of the newly
   * created closure as a whole, i.e. the following relations hold:
   */
  assert(  (closure + 4) == cp  );
  assert(  C_block_header(closure_object) == (*closure)  );
  assert(  C_data_pointer(closure_object) == (closure + 1)  );
  assert(  C_block_item(closure_object, 0) == (*(closure + 1))  );

  /* Make a vector of 4 objects and use closure_object as continuation */
  C_allocate_vector(6, (C_word)NULL, closure_object, C_fix(4),
                    C_SCHEME_FALSE,  /* not a byte vector */
                    C_SCHEME_FALSE,  /* initialization value. Don't care */
                    C_SCHEME_FALSE); /* don't align at 8 bytes */
  /* .. C_allocate_vector does not return ... */
}
<#


(define one-two-three
   (foreign-primitive ((scheme-object str)) "one_two_three(C_c, C_self, C_k, str);"))

(print (one-two-three "hi"))

This is equivalent to the following in Scheme:

(define (one-two-three str)
  (let ((fill-vector (lambda (vec)
                       (vector-set! vec 0 1)
                       (vector-set! vec 1 2)
                       (vector-set! vec 2 3)
                       (vector-set! vec 3 str)
                       vec)))
    (fill-vector (make-vector 4 #f))))

(print (one-two-three "hi"))

Memory allocation

These can be used to allocate memory for non-immediate objects.

C_alloc
[C macro] C_word* C_alloc (int words)

Allocates memory from the C stack (C_alloc) and returns a pointer to it. words should be the number of words needed for all data objects that are to be created in this function. Note that stack-allocated data objects have to be passed to Scheme callback functions, or they will not be seen by the garbage collector. This is really only usable for callback procedure invocations, make sure not to use it in normal code, because the allocated memory will be re-used after the foreign procedure returns. When invoking Scheme callback procedures a minor garbage collection is performed, so data allocated with C_alloc will already have moved to a safe place.

Note that C_alloc is really just a wrapper around alloca, and can also be simulated by declaring a stack-allocated array of C_words:

C_SIZEOF_LIST
[C macro] int C_SIZEOF_LIST (int length)
C_SIZEOF_STRING
[C macro] int C_SIZEOF_STRING (int length)
C_SIZEOF_VECTOR
[C macro] int C_SIZEOF_VECTOR (int length)

Returns the size in words needed for allocation of vector with length elements.

C_SIZEOF_INTERNED_SYMBOL
[C macro] int C_SIZEOF_INTERNED_SYMBOL (int length)
C_SIZEOF_PAIR
[C macro] int C_SIZEOF_PAIR
C_SIZEOF_FLONUM
[C macro] int C_SIZEOF_FLONUM
C_SIZEOF_POINTER
[C macro] int C_SIZEOF_POINTER
C_SIZEOF_LOCATIVE
[C macro] int C_SIZEOF_LOCATIVE
C_SIZEOF_TAGGED_POINTER
[C macro] int C_SIZEOF_TAGGED_POINTER

These are macros that return the size in words needed for a data object of a given type.

Accessors

C_character_code

[C macro] int C_character_code (C_word character)

C_unfix

[C macro] int C_unfix (C_word fixnum)

C_flonum_magnitude

[C macro] double C_flonum_magnitude (C_word flonum)

C_c_string

[C function] char* C_c_string (C_word string)

C_num_to_int

[C function] int C_num_to_int (C_word fixnum_or_flonum)

C_pointer_address

[C function] void* C_pointer_address (C_word pointer)

These macros and functions can be used to convert Scheme data objects back to C data. Note that C_c_string() returns a pointer to the character buffer of the actual Scheme object and is not zero-terminated.

C_header_size

[C macro] int C_header_size (C_word x)

C_header_bits

[C macro] int C_header_bits (C_word x)

Return the number of elements and the type-bits of the non-immediate Scheme data object x.

C_block_item

[C macro] C_word C_block_item (C_word x, int index)

This macro can be used to access slots of the non-immediate Scheme data object x. index specifies the index of the slot to be fetched, starting at 0. Pairs have 2 slots, one for the car and one for the cdr. Vectors have one slot for each element.

C_u_i_car

[C macro] C_word C_u_i_car (C_word x)

C_u_i_cdr

[C macro] C_word C_u_i_cdr (C_word x)

Aliases for C_block_item(x, 0) and C_block_item(x, 1), respectively.

C_port_file

[C macro] C_word C_port_file (C_word x)

Alias for (FILE *)C_block_item(x, 0). To be used with port objects representing files (but will not work on sockets, for example).

C_data_pointer

[C macro] void* C_data_pointer (C_word x)

Returns a pointer to the data-section of a non-immediate Scheme object.

C_make_header

[C macro] C_word C_make_header (C_word bits, C_word size)

A macro to build a Scheme object header from its bits and size parts.

C_mutate

[C function] C_word C_mutate (C_word *slot, C_word val)

Assign the Scheme value val to the location specified by slot. If the value points to data inside the nursery (the first heap-generation), then the garbage collector will remember to handle the data appropriately. Assigning nursery-pointers directly will otherwise result in lost data. Note that no copying takes place at the moment when C_mutate is called, but later - at the next (minor) garbage collection.

C_symbol_value

[C macro] C_word C_symbol_value (C_word symbol)

Returns the global value of the variable with the name symbol. If the variable is unbound C_SCHEME_UNBOUND is returned. You can set a variable's value with C_mutate(&C_symbol_value(SYMBOL), VALUE).

GC interface

C_gc_protect

[C function] void C_gc_protect (C_word *ptrs[], int n)

Registers n variables at address ptrs to be garbage collection roots. The locations should not contain pointers to data allocated in the nursery, only immediate values or pointers to heap-data are valid. Any assignment of potential nursery data into a root-array should be done via C_mutate(). The variables have to be initialized to sensible values before the next garbage collection starts (when in doubt, set all locations in ptrs to C_SCHEME_UNDEFINED) C_gc_protect may not called before the runtime system has been initialized (either by CHICKEN_initialize, CHICKEN_run or CHICKEN_invoke.

For a slightly simpler interface to creating and using GC roots see CHICKEN_new_gc_root.

C_gc_unprotect

[C function] void C_gc_unprotect (int n)

Removes the last n registered variables from the set of root variables.

C_pre_gc_hook

[C Variable] void (*C_pre_gc_hook)(int mode)

If not NULL, the function pointed to by this variable will be called before each garbage collection with a flag indicating what kind of collection was performed (either 0 for a minor or major collection or 2 for a resizing collection). A "resizing" collection means a secondary collection that moves all live data into a enlarged (or shrinked) heap-space. Minor collections happen very frequently, so the hook function should not consume too much time. The hook function may not invoke Scheme callbacks.

Note that resizing collections may be nested in normal major collections.

C_post_gc_hook

[C Variable] void (*C_post_gc_hook)(int mode, long ms)

If not NULL, the function pointed to by this variable will be called after each garbage collection with a flag indicating what kind of collection was performed (either 0 for a minor collection, 1 for a major collection or 2 for a resizing collection). Minor collections happen very frequently, so the hook function should not consume too much time. The hook function may not invoke Scheme callbacks. The ms argument records the number of milliseconds required for the garbage collection, if the collection was a major one. For minor collections the value of the ms argument is undefined.

Type-specific macros and functions

The following are macros and functions to ask information or perform operations on objects once their types are already known. If you call it on any object of another type, it is not defined what will happen and likely your program will crash, especially if you pass immediates to procedures expecting non-immediates.

Vectors

C_vemptyp
[C macro] C_word C_vemptyp(C_word v)

Is the (byte- or heterogenous) vector v empty?

C_notvemptyp
[C macro] C_word C_notvemptyp(C_word v)

Is the (byte- or heterogenous) vector v nonempty?

Numbers

These procedures accept any type of number, so you can pass in either a fixnum or a flonum. You shouldn't pass in another type though, since that could crash your program.

C_u_i_exactp
[C macro] C_word C_u_i_exactp(C_word x)

Is x an exact number (i.e., a fixnum)?

C_u_i_inexactp
[C macro] C_word C_u_i_inexactp(C_word x)

Is x an inexact number (i.e., not a fixnum)?

C_i_finitep
[C function] C_word C_i_finitep(C_word x)

Is x a finite number? This returns false only when x is a flonum representing -inf or +inf.

Fixnums

Note: Fixnums are immediates, so there is no C_fixnum_equalp macro. You can just compare them without hassle (or use C_eqp if you prefer).

C_i_fixnumevenp
[C macro] C_word C_i_fixnumevenp(C_word x)

Is x an even fixnum?

C_i_fixnumoddp
[C macro] C_word C_i_fixnumoddp(C_word x)

Is x an odd fixnum?

C_fixnum_times
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_times(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Multiply fixnum n1 by fixnum n2.

C_fixnum_plus
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_plus(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Add fixnum n1 to fixnum n2.

C_u_fixnum_plus
[C macro] C_word C_u_fixnum_plus(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Like C_fixnum_plus, but unsafe (assumes no overflow/underflow).

C_fixnum_difference
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_difference(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Calculate n1 - n2.

C_u_fixnum_difference
[C macro] C_word C_u_fixnum_difference(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Like C_fixnum_difference, but unsafe (assumes no overflow/underflow).

C_fixnum_divide
C_u_fixnum_divide
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_divide(C_word n1, C_word n2)
[C macro] C_word C_u_fixnum_divide(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Divide n1 by n2, returning the quotient (i.e., integer division). C_fixnum_divide signals an error if n2 is zero.

C_fixnum_modulo
C_u_fixnum_modulo
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_modulo(C_word n1, C_word n2)
[C macro] C_word C_u_fixnum_modulo(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Calculate n1 modulo n2. C_fixnum_modulo signals an error if n2 is zero.

C_fixnum_and
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_and(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Calculate the bitwise AND of the integral values of n1 and n2.

C_u_fixnum_and
[C macro] C_word C_u_fixnum_and(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Like C_fixnum_and, but unsafe.

C_fixnum_or
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_or(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Calculate the bitwise OR of the integral values of n1 and n2.

C_u_fixnum_or
[C macro] C_word C_u_fixnum_or(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Like C_fixnum_or, but unsafe.

C_fixnum_xor
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_xor(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Calculate the bitwise XOR of the integral values of n1 and n2.

C_fixnum_not
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_not(C_word n)

Calculate the bitwise NOT (inversion of bits) of the integral value of n.

C_fixnum_shift_left
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_shift_left(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Shift the integral value of n1 left by n2 positions.

C_fixnum_shift_right
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_shift_right(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Shift the integral value of n1 right by n2

C_fixnum_negate
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_negate(C_word n)

Negate n, i.e. return -n.

C_fixnum_greaterp
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_greaterp(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Returns C_SCHEME_TRUE when n1 is greater than n2, C_SCHEME_FALSE if not.

C_fixnum_greater_or_equal_p
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_greater_or_equalp(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Returns C_SCHEME_TRUE when n1 is greater than or equal to n2, C_SCHEME_FALSE if not.

C_fixnum_lessp
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_lessp(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Returns C_SCHEME_TRUE when n1 is less than n2, C_SCHEME_FALSE if not.

C_fixnum_less_or_equal_p
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_less_or_equalp(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Returns C_SCHEME_TRUE when n1 is less than or equal to n2, C_SCHEME_FALSE if not.

C_fixnum_increase
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_increase(C_word n)

Adds 1 to n

C_u_fixnum_increase
[C macro] C_word C_u_fixnum_increase(C_word n)

As C_fixnum_increase, but unsafe (assumes the result will not overflow).

C_fixnum_decrease
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_decrease(C_word n)

Subtracts 1 from n

C_u_fixnum_decrease
[C macro] C_word C_u_fixnum_decrease(C_word n)

As C_fixnum_increase, but unsafe (assumes the result will not underflow).

C_fixnum_abs
[C macro] C_word C_fixnum_abs(C_word n)

Returns the absolute value of n.

C_i_fixnum_min
[C function] C_word C_fixnum_min(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Returns the smallest of the two fixnums n1 and n2.

C_i_fixnum_max
[C function] C_word C_fixnum_max(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Returns the largest of the two fixnums n1 and n2.

Flonums

C_flonum_equalp
[C macro] C_word C_flonum_equalp(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Returns C_SCHEME_TRUE when n1 and n2 are equal flonums, C_SCHEME_FALSE otherwise.

C_flonum_greaterp
[C macro] C_word C_flonum_greaterp(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Returns C_SCHEME_TRUE when n1 is greater than n2, C_SCHEME_FALSE if not.

C_flonum_greater_or_equal_p
[C macro] C_word C_flonum_greater_or_equal_p(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Returns C_SCHEME_TRUE when n1 is greater than or equal to n2, C_SCHEME_FALSE if not.

C_flonum_lessp
[C macro] C_word C_flonum_lessp(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Returns C_SCHEME_TRUE when n1 is less than n2, C_SCHEME_FALSE if not.

C_flonum_less_or_equal_p
[C macro] C_word C_flonum_less_or_equal_p(C_word n1, C_word n2)

Returns C_SCHEME_TRUE when n1 is less than or equal to n2, C_SCHEME_FALSE if not.

C_a_i_flonum_plus
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_plus(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n1, C_word n2)

Adds the flonum n1 to the flonum n2, using the storage at ptr. c should always be 2.

Example:

#include <chicken.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
  C_word *mema, *memb, *memresult;
  C_word a, b, result;

  mema = C_alloc(C_SIZEOF_FLONUM);
  memb = C_alloc(C_SIZEOF_FLONUM);
  memresult = C_alloc(C_SIZEOF_FLONUM);
  a = C_flonum(&mema, 1.2);
  b = C_flonum(&memb, 4.7);
  result = C_a_i_flonum_plus(&memresult, 2, a, b);
  printf("%lf\n", C_flonum_magnitude(result));
  return 0;
}

This will print 5.9

C_a_i_flonum_difference
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_difference(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n1, C_word n2)

Subtracts the flonum n2 from the flonum n1, using the storage at ptr. c should always be 2.

C_a_i_flonum_times
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_times(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n1, C_word n2)

Multiplies the flonum n1 by the flonum n2, using the storage at ptr. c should always be 2.

C_a_i_flonum_quotient
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_quotient(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n1, C_word n2)

Calculates the quotient of the flonum n1 divided by the flonum n2, using the storage at ptr. c should always be 2.

C_a_i_flonum_negate
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_negate(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Negates the flonum n, using the storage at ptr. c should always be 1.

C_a_i_flonum_truncate
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_truncate(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Truncate the flonum n, using the storage at ptr. c should always be 1.

C_a_i_flonum_ceiling
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_ceiling(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Round the flonum n, rounding upwards, using the storage at ptr. c should always be 1.

C_a_i_flonum_floor
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_floor(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Round the flonum n, rounding downwards, using the storage at ptr. c should always be 1.

C_a_i_flonum_round
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_round(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Round the flonum n, rounding towards the nearest integer, using the storage at ptr. c should always be 1.

This macro returns the value like returned by C's round() function. That means it rounds to the larger value (away from 0) when rounding numbers halfway between two integers.

C_a_i_flonum_round_proper
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_round_proper(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Round the flonum n, rounding towards the nearest integer, using the storage at ptr. c should always be 1.

This macro returns the value like returned by Scheme's round procedure. That means it rounds to even numbers when rounding numbers halfway between two integers.

C_a_i_flonum_sin
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_sin(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Calculates the sine of n (in radians).

C_a_i_flonum_cos
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_cos(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Calculates the cosine of n (in radians).

C_a_i_flonum_tan
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_tan(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Calculates the tangent of n (in radians).

C_a_i_flonum_asin
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_asin(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Calculates the arc sine of n (in radians, in the range -pi/2 through +pi/2).

C_a_i_flonum_acos
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_acos(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Calculates the arc cosine of n (in radians, in the range 0 through pi).

C_a_i_flonum_atan
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_atan(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Calculates the arc tangent of n (in radians, in the range -pi/2 through +pi/2).

Like C's atan() or Scheme's unary atan.

C_a_i_flonum_atan2
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_atan2(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n1, C_word n2)

Calculates the arc tangent of n1/n2 (in radians), using the sign of both to determine the quadrant of the result.

Like C's atan2() or Scheme's binary atan.

C_a_i_flonum_log
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_log(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Calculate the natural (base e) logarithm of n.

C_a_i_flonum_exp
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_exp(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Calculates the base e exponent of n (i.e., the inverse operation of C_a_i_flonum_log).

C_a_i_flonum_expt
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_expt(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n1, C_word n2)

Calculates n1 raised to the power n2.

C_a_i_flonum_sqrt
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_sqrt(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Calculates the square root of n.

C_a_i_flonum_abs
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_flonum_abs(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word n)

Calculates the absolute value of n.

Pointers

C_null_pointerp
[C macro] C_word C_null_pointerp(C_word x)

Is x a NULL pointer?

C_a_i_address_to_pointer
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_address_to_pointer(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word addr)

Convert addr to a pointer object using the storage at ptr. addr is can be either a flonum or a fixnum representing a memory address.

C_a_i_pointer_to_address
[C macro] C_word C_a_i_pointer_to_address(C_word **ptr, int c, C_word pptr)

Convert back the pointer pptr to an address number, possibly using the storage at ptr. The number returned can be either a fixnum or a flonum, so you will have to pass a memory storage that can hold a flonum at ptr. Whether it is actually used depends on the size of the address.

Ports

C_tty_portp
[C macro] C_word C_tty_portp(C_word x)

Is x a TTY port object?

Structures

C_i_structurep
[C macro] C_word C_i_structurep(C_word x, C_word s)

Is x a structure (record) object with type tag s? This is completely safe to use, because it checks whether x is an immediate or not.

Characters

These understand only ASCII characters.

C_u_i_char_alphabeticp
[C macro] C_word C_u_i_char_alphabeticp(C_word c)

Is c an alphabetic character?

C_u_i_char_numericp
[C macro] C_word C_u_i_char_numericp(C_word c)

Is c a numeric character?

C_u_i_char_whitespacep
[C macro] C_word C_u_i_char_whitespacep(C_word c)

Is c a whitespace character?

C_u_i_char_upper_casep
[C macro] C_word C_u_i_char_upper_casep(C_word c)

Is c an uppercase character?

C_u_i_char_lower_casep
[C macro] C_word C_u_i_char_lower_casep(C_word c)

Is c a lowercase character?

Other Scheme procedures from C

There are a number of Scheme procedures that have a direct C implementation, so you can call them from C too.

C_eqp

[C macro] C_word C_eqp(C_word a, C_word b)

The C version of (eq? a b).

C_equalp

[C macro] C_word C_equalp(C_word a, C_word b)

The C version of (equal? a b).

C_i_pairp

[C function] C_word C_i_pair_p(C_word x)

The C version of (pair? x).

C_i_not_pair_p

[C macro] C_word C_i_not_pair_p(C_word x)

The C version of (not (pair? x)).

An example for simple calls to foreign code involving callbacks

% cat foo.scm
#>
extern int callout(int, int, int);
<#

(define callout (foreign-safe-lambda int "callout" int int int))

(define-external (callin (scheme-object xyz)) int
  (print "This is 'callin': " xyz)
  123)

(print (callout 1 2 3))
% cat bar.c
#include <stdio.h>
#include "chicken.h"

extern int callout(int, int, int);
extern int callin(C_word x);

int callout(int x, int y, int z)
{
  C_word *ptr = C_alloc(C_SIZEOF_LIST(3));
  C_word lst;

  printf("This is 'callout': %d, %d, %d\n", x, y, z);
  lst = C_list(&ptr, 3, C_fix(x), C_fix(y), C_fix(z));
  return callin(lst);  /* Note: `callin' will have GC'd the data in `ptr' */
}
% csc foo.scm bar.c -o foo
% foo
This is 'callout': 1, 2, 3
This is 'callin': (1 2 3)
123

Notes:


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