leveldb

Bindings to LevelDB, a fast and lightweight key/value database library by Google.

  1. leveldb
    1. Examples
      1. Basic operation
      2. Batches and ranges
    2. API
      1. Open and close
      2. Basic read and write
      3. Atomic updates (batches)
      4. Range queries (streams)
      5. Synchronous Writes

If you make any changes to this documentation, please also consider sending a pull request to update the README.md at https://github.com/caolan/chicken-leveldb.

Examples

Basic operation

(use leveldb)

(define db (open-db "./example"))

(db-put db "hello" "world")
(display (db-get db "hello")) ;; => world
(db-delete db "hello")

(close-db db)

Batches and ranges

(use leveldb lazy-seq)

(define operations
  '((put "name:123" "jane")
    (put "name:456" "joe")))

(define (print-names pairs)
  (lazy-each print pairs))

(call-with-db "./example"
  (lambda (db)
    (db-batch db operations)
    (db-stream db print-names start: "name:" end: "name::")))

;; prints
;; => (name:123 jane)
;; => (name:456 joe)

API

Open and close

[procedure] (open-db loc #!key (create #t) (exists #t))

Opens database with path `loc` and returns a database object. By default, this method will create the database if it does not exist at `loc` and will not error if the database already exists. This behaviour can be modified using the keyword arguments. Setting `exists` to `#f` will mean an exception occurs if the database already exists. Setting `create` to `#f` will mean an exception occurs if the database does not exist.

[procedure] (close-db db)

Closes database `db`.

[procedure] (call-with-db loc proc #!key (create #t) (exists #t))

Opens database at `loc` and calls (proc db). The database will be closed when proc returns or raises an exception.

Basic read and write

[procedure] (db-get db key)

Returns the value of `key` in `db` as a string. Causes an exception if the key does not exist.

[procedure] (db-put db key value #!key (sync #f))

Stores `value` under `key` in datbase `db`. If the sync option can be set to `#t` to make the write operation not return until the data being written has been pushed all the way to persistent storage. See the *Synchronous Writes* section for more information.

[procedure] (db-delete db key #!key (sync #f))

Removes the value associated with `key` from `db`. If the sync option can be set to `#t` to make the write operation not return until the data being written has been pushed all the way to persistent storage. See the *Synchronous Writes* section for more information.

Atomic updates (batches)

[procedure] (db-batch db ops #!key (sync #f))

When making multiple changes that rely on each other you can apply a batch of operations atomically using `db-batch`. The `ops` argument is a list of operations which will be applied **in order** (meaning you can create then later delete a value in the same batch, for example).

(define myops '((put "abc" "123")
                (put "def" "456")
                (delete "abc")))

;; apply all operations in myops
(db-batch db myops)

The first item in an operation should be the symbol `put` or `delete`, any other value will give an error. The next item is the key and in the case of `put` the third item is the value.

Apart from its atomicity benefits, `db-batch` may also be used to speed up bulk updates by placing lots of individual mutations into the same batch.

Range queries (streams)

[procedure] (db-stream db thunk #!key start end limit reverse (key #t) (value #t) fillcache)

Allows forward and backward iteration over the keys in alphabetical order. Calls `thunk` with a lazy sequence of all key/value pairs from `start` to `end` (up to `limit`). This uses the lazy-seq egg.

When both `key: #t` and `value: #t` (as default) values are returned as a list with two items, the `car` being the key and the `cadr` being the value. When only `key: #t` or `value: #t` the keys or values are not returned as a list but as a string representing the single key or value.

(define (show-data pairs)
  (lazy-map display pairs))

(db-stream db show-data start: "foo:" end: "foo::" limit: 10)

You can turn the lazy-seq into a list using `lazy-seq->list`, just be warned that it will evaluate the entire key range and should be avoided unless you know the number of values is small (eg, when using `limit`).

(db-batch db '((put "foo" "1")
               (put "bar" "2")
               (put "baz" "3")))

(db-stream db lazy-seq->list limit: 2) ;; => (("foo" "1") ("bar" "2"))
(db-stream db lazy-seq->list key: #f value: #t) ;; => ("1" "2" "3")
(db-stream db lazy-seq->list key: #t value: #f) ;; => ("foo" "bar" "baz")

Synchronous Writes

Note: this information is mostly copied from the LevelDB docs

By default, each write to leveldb is asynchronous: it returns after pushing the write from the process into the operating system. The transfer from operating system memory to the underlying persistent storage happens asynchronously. The sync flag can be turned on for a particular write to make the write operation not return until the data being written has been pushed all the way to persistent storage. (On Posix systems, this is implemented by calling either fsync(...) or fdatasync(...) or msync(..., MS\_SYNC) before the write operation returns.)

Asynchronous writes are often more than a thousand times as fast as synchronous writes. The downside of asynchronous writes is that a crash of the machine may cause the last few updates to be lost. Note that a crash of just the writing process (i.e., not a reboot) will not cause any loss since even when sync is false, an update is pushed from the process memory into the operating system before it is considered done.

`db-batch` provides an alternative to asynchronous writes. Multiple updates may be placed in the same batch and applied together using a `sync: #t`. The extra cost of the synchronous write will be amortized across all of the writes in the batch.